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Generic reference: the exceptional status of human nouns
par Ismaël Zaïdi,
publié le 25/09/2023
- This article examines the particular status of generic references (statements that assign a characteristic to a class or subclass) that concern human subjects. While such statements are often described as interchangeable, our study shows that each form of generic reference has social implications when human subjects are under study. Between non-acceptability, the expression of stereotypes and a need for context which is usually absent in studies, human nouns highlight more than ever the relationship between grammar and semantics within generic references.
Literature, Sound and the Egyptian Uprising
par Jumana Bayeh,
publié le 12/01/2023
- Egypt's Arab Spring was experienced as a mediated event in two notable ways. First, in the immediate successes of Tahrir Square, Facebook was heralded as a fundamental agent of the uprising and responsible for the fall of Mubarak. Second, the failure of the 'Spring' with the election of an Islamist and a counter-revolution that saw the rise of a military dictatorship, news reports sought to make sense of the country's rapidly flailing political fortunes. Missing from both these forms of mediation are the voices of the rioters, their coordinated spontaneity and their very acts of resistance. While numerous images of the protests were captured, individual stories and lives were drowned out by the raucous cacophony of the masses. Assuming an extended view of the media terrain that recorded the uprising, this seminar seeks to recover the lost voices of Egypt's Arab Spring. It focuses on two novels by Robert Omar Hamilton and Yasmin El Rashid to drill down into how intimate stories and individual voices provide an alternative method to inform our knowledge of crowd violence. It will illustrate how narrative discourses can contribute in critical and strategic ways to reclaiming what has been lost or unheard in the seeming media decadence that characterised the uprising.
Giving Voice in Mike Lew’s Teenage Dick: Disability in a Modern Rewriting of Richard III
par Méline Dumot,
publié le 09/10/2020
- This article examines a contemporary rewriting of Shakespeare’s Richard III by Chinese-American playwright Mike Lew. In his play Teenage Dick (2018), Lew gives a new voice to Shakespeare’s well-known villain. Noticing that one of the most famous disabled characters in theatre history is rarely – if ever – performed by a disabled actor, Lew centers his play on Richard’s experience as a disabled teenager. The play questions our current vision of disability, both in the theatrical world and in our society. This article explores the ways in which Lew adapts the Shakespearean legacy to produce a new narrative and envisions the concept of accessibility in multiple ways.
“I, poor monster” (Twelfth Night, II. 2. 33): Monsters as Subjects in A Midsummer Night’s Dream and The Tempest
par Manon Turban,
publié le 02/10/2018
- This paper aims to study how the unusual characterisation of Caliban and Bottom as feeling and thinking subjects in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream and The Tempest provokes the emergence of compassion, an emotion which monsters seldom inspired in the early modern period and which invites the audience to catch a glimpse of the mutability of human identity in these two monstrous characters.
Taiye Selasi: On Emotions
par Taiye Selasi,
publié le 31/08/2015
- How do writers succeed in submerging us in situations so unlike our own lives? I would argue that, as a reader, I have yet to encounter a situation in literature "unlike" my life. The demographic details may differ: Charlotte is a spider, I am a human; Teju Cole's narrators are men, I am a woman; many of Toni Morrison's characters are mothers, I am not. The list of things that I am not is long: white, male, a parent, a soldier, Chinese-speaking, South American, a witness to any war.
Morality (Adelle Waldman)
par Adelle Waldman,
publié le 26/08/2015
- Two of my favorite authors, Jane Austen and George Eliot, are very concerned with characters’ moral lives. In “The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.,” I look closely at how Nathaniel P. justifies his behavior to himself. Today, books or films about romantic relationships, or dating, are often seen as very light—mere amusements and escapes—but this is the area in life when most of us will reveal how we treat others: how kind we are to those we don’t (or no longer) love and how we respond when differences arise with those we do love. I wanted to write a book about relationships that was truthful without being escapist, and I wanted to look closely at how dating behavior reflects morality in the deepest sense.
Goldie Goldbloom: Portraits and Faces - Appearance and Disfigurement
par Goldie Goldbloom,
publié le 27/09/2013
Chekhov is well known for his impartial observations of his characters and for his grasp of “realism”. When I first read his description of the lady with the little dog, I discovered that she is “a fair-haired young lady of medium height, wearing a beret.” I was puzzled. This less than enthusiastic description of the woman Gurov will come to love leaves out many basic details such as the colour of Anna Sergeyevna’s eyes and whether she has an attractive figure. I wondered why Chekhov departs from the wordier earlier traditions of written portraiture, and how his simple sketch of Anna illustrated the “realism” for which he is known.
Rebelling as a female in the 18th and 19th century literature. From Pamela to Jane Eyre: a path to equality?
par Marion Lopez-Burette,
publié le 23/09/2013
This article intends to study and compare the way Pamela, Richardson's early heroine of the novel genre, and Charlotte Brontë's romantic Jane, rebel. What follows will underscore the path trodden by female fictional characters in terms of shaping the individual, from the Enlightenment period to the romantic era. The patterns of entrapment and self-willed seclusion the protagonists are involved in function as incentives for rebellion. The ideals they rebel for play the role of living forces in a way that is meaningful to comprehend how the essence of rebellion evolved with time. No matter how much the protagonists' respective procedure may differ, from moral conservatism to personal answering of moral questions through rites of passage, the two female heroines are equally conscious of their value as human beings. Their handling of their hardships and their allegiance to God, however, points to the qualitative and quantitative evolution of the notion of equality.
Keith Scribner: Representation and Psychology of Conflict
par Keith Scribner,
publié le 27/08/2013
In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech William Faulkner famously said that all real meaning in fiction comes from the human heart in conflict with itself. As a novelist I’m compelled by the internal conflicts inherent in the stories we tell ourselves in order to live and how those stories come to define us, how they allow us to justify our actions and possibly delude ourselves about who we are. Like any narrative, these stories help us shape otherwise disparate experiences into a comprehensible form. Over time we become so heavily invested in these narratives that when their veracity is challenged, the resulting conflict can be explosive.
William Hogarth - Characters and Caricaturas
par Vincent Brault,
publié le 19/04/2013
Reproduction commentée de l'oeuvre "Characters and Caricaturas" du graveur anglais William Hogarth.
Amending Mariana in Measure for Measure
par Michael Dobson,
publié le 11/04/2013
With all of this provocative and intriguing play to choose from, complete with a beguiling cast list that includes figures as complex and compelling as Angelo, Isabella, and the Duke, I have chosen to discuss the person who may seem in her own right the least interesting of the six newly-married, betrothed-and-expecting, or potentially betrothed characters who dominate Measure for Measure’s final tableau: Mariana.
Video game theory
par Liel Leibovtiz, Claire Richard,
publié le 05/12/2012
TV requires you to interpret, to find meaning, to reject meaning, to make up new meaning, to negociate. Video games aren’t like that. Video games require you to do something else. You turn on a video game, and immediately you exist in three separate forms : you are that self on the couch, sitting in the physical space, watching the TV, holding the remote in your hand, you are the avatar on the screen, the character which you control and manipulate, and you’re a sort of third entity, an amalgamation of the two of you, of real and unreal, person and avatar, of gamer and character.
The cultural perception of the American land: a short history
par Mireille Chambon-Pernet,
publié le 20/11/2012
The importance of land and nature in the American culture is widely known. The Pilgrim Fathers who landed on the coast of the Massachussetts in 1620 were looking for freedom which was both spiritual and material. The latter derived from land ownership, as a landowner called no man master. Yet, in 1893, Jackson Turner announced that: “the American character did not spring full-blown from the Mayflower” “ It came out of the forests and gained new strength each time it touched a frontier”.
Kate Colquhoun on the blurred boundaries between fiction and non-fiction
par Kate Colquhoun,
publié le 11/09/2012
Truman Capote called his 1966 book In Cold Blood the first non-fiction novel. Since then, the boundaries between fiction and non-fiction have become increasingly blurred.
Are these false definitions? At least we could say that novelists are able to articulate the internal worlds – the thoughts and feelings – of their characters while non-fiction relies entirely on evidence.
Helen Oyeyemi on haunted house novels
par Helen Oyeyemi,
publié le 18/06/2012
"You read of extreme cases of jamais vu in the newspapers. There was one recently involving a husband who, after eighteen years of happy stability with his wife, told her he had a surprise for her. He blindfolded her, then ‘hit her over the head with the blunt end of an axe, fracturing her skull in three places.’ She survived and tried to forgive him, even vouched for his good character in court. The husband-turned-attacker, unable to explain his moment of terminal hostility, deferred to psychiatrists who offered the opinion that it was his past that had caused it. "
Jonathan Dee on the place of the novel in a money-driven society
par Jonathan Dee,
publié le 13/06/2012
About money there is nothing new. Nor about social inequity. When I wrote The Privileges, I was careful to leave out as many time-specific details as possible, because I felt that to tie its characters, and the lives they led, to the circumstances of a particular moment in history was to excuse them, in a way, and thus to miss the point of their existence...
Narration in the Human Mind
par Siri Hustvedt,
publié le 16/02/2012
"Human beings are forever explaining themselves to themselves. This is the nature of our self-consciousness. We are not only awake and aware of the world around us, but are able to reflect on ourselves as actors in that world. We reason and we tell stories. Unlike our mammalian relatives who do not narrate their own lives, we become characters in our own tales, both when we recollect ourselves in the past and imagine ourselves in the future. Our ability to represent our experience in language - in those sounds and signs of our essential intersubjectivity - allows us the necessary symbolic alienation required for mental time travel..."
“The shadow of the fifth”: patterns of exclusion in Doris Lessing’s The Fifth Child
par Anne-Laure Brevet,
publié le 06/12/2011
This study of The Fifth Child (1988) attempts to show that the eponymous character, a traumatic semi-human creature who neither assimilates into his ordinary family nor conforms to the demands of society impersonates a drive for disorder, chaos and violence undermining collective ideals. On the one hand, the fact that the alien child is not only excluded from family life but also from any type of “normal” human interaction, especially in Ben, in the World (2000), reveals hidden discordant notes that further lead to the disruption of his model family. On the other hand, as the symbol of a dark, destructive force fighting against enlightenment and progress, Ben’s inherently disruptive figure is a reminder of the two World Wars and the impersonation of social unrest. Through the various patterns of exclusion triggered off by his subversive presence, the fifth child reveals that the primitive dimension of the self and of humanity at large should be understood as part and parcel of human nature.
Katherine Mansfield’s Short Stories: An Introduction
par Emilie Walezak ,
publié le 28/06/2011
Katherine Mansfield wrote short stories exclusively and produced a large body of work though she died quite young from tuberculosis when she was 30. She is one the best representatives of modernist short story writing. Virginia Woolf herself admitted to Mansfield that she was jealous of her writing: "and then Morgan Foster said the Prelude and The Voyage Out were the best novels of their time, and I said damn Katherine! Why can't I be the only woman who knows how to write?"
Promoting patients in narrative discourse: A developmental perspective
par Harriet Jisa ,
publié le 18/12/2009
Languages provide speakers with a number of structural options for manipulating the expression of events in narrative discourse. Underlying narrative competence is the capacity to view events as dynamic actions composed of a bundle of elements such as, agent, patient, affectedness, etc. (Hopper and Thompson, 1980). This study examines the grammatical constructions used by children (5-6-, 7-8- and 10-11-year-olds) and adult speakers of Amharic, English, French and Hungarian to manipulate the expression of agent and patient participants in the expression of events. The narrative task used to elicit the data is composed of a series of pictures which recount the adventures of two principal characters (a boy and a dog) in search of their runaway frog (Frog, Where are you? Mayer 1969). Over the course of the story the boy and the dog encounter a host of secondary characters (a mole, an owl, a swarm of bees and a deer) and change participant status, going from controlling agent to affected patient of a secondary character's action. Our interest lies in the range of structures available in the languages studied and their use by children and adults in narrative discourse. We detail how children and adults native speakers of the four languages use topicalising constructions to promote the patient participant in an event to the starting point (Langacker, 1998) of the recounting of that event.
The Intricacies of Onomastics in Harry Potter and its French Translation
par Carole Mulliez,
publié le 16/11/2009
- To put it in a nutshell, here, I am going to consider two categories in the vast corpus of Rowling's proper nouns, namely character naming and place naming. I would like to show that not only do they point at one single instance but also that they are in keeping with the reference characteristics - or sometimes misleading - ; that they contain cultural echoes and plays on words; and that their sounds are also appropriate. To conclude I am going to underline how difficult it must have been for translators to find a satisfactory solution as a result.
A reading of The Brooklyn Follies through the lens of autofiction
par Marie Thévenon,
publié le 02/10/2009
From his very first novel, The Invention of Solitude, to his very last, Man in the Dark, Paul Auster has always played with the mixture between autobiography and fiction. The Brooklyn Follies pertains to this tradition and it is through the lens of autofiction that this article proposes to explore this novel. The author starts by observing the similarities between Paul Auster and his characters and pays close attention to the intertextual dimension. She then analyses the metafictional aspects of the narration. Finally, she places this novel among Paul Auster's other works and wonders if there has been an evolution in his writing.
Paul Auster: A General Introduction
par Jocelyn Dupont,
publié le 13/02/2009
This document provides a short general overview of Paul Auster’s work. After a brief discussion of Auster’s texts positioning in the literary heritage, it tackles the place and role of the writer in an often alienating environment. It then deals with the representation of the city in Auster’s work, notably Brooklyn, before concluding on the gift for storytelling that so characterizes Paul Auster’s production.
The "mechanics of reality": Paul Auster speaks about his work and inspiration
par Paul Auster, Jocelyn Dupont,
publié le 15/01/2009
A l'occasion du passage de Paul Auster à Lyon, la Villa Gillet a organisé une rencontre entre l'auteur des Brooklyn Follies et plusieurs centaines de lycéens étudiant cette oeuvre pour leur bac d'anglais. La première partie de l'entretien a été menée par Jocelyn Dupont, puis, dans la seconde partie, les lycéens ont pu poser eux-mêmes leurs questions à Paul Auster.
Fiche de lecture : Celebration, Harold Pinter
par Juliette Dorotte,
publié le 07/05/2008
- In a posh restaurant, two couples of friends, Matt and Prue, and Lambert and Julie, are having lunch. They are together to celebrate Lambert and Julie's wedding anniversary, but the mood is not proper to celebration. At an adjacent table, another couple is having a talk. Revelations are fusing on both sides: the man had an affair, and the woman reveals the dark side of her past. Before the six characters meet and make the general atmosphere even tenser, three characters come and go between the tables: the owner of the restaurant, a waitress, and a mythomaniac waiter.
The Victorian Sensation Novel
par Sophie Lemercier-Goddard, David Amigoni,
publié le 02/05/2008
The sensation novel developed in Britain in the 1860s with Wilkie Collins as its most famous representative and has been increasingly presented as a sub-genre revealing the cultural anxiety of the Victorian period. Its complex narrative which relies on a tangle of mysteries and secrets introduces the character of the detective while heavily resorting to the Gothic machinery with the figure of the persecuted maiden and that of the villain.
Across the ‘Wide Sargasso Sea’: Jean Rhys’s Revision of Charlotte Brontë’s Eurocentric Gothic
par Sylvie Maurel,
publié le 20/03/2008
In this article, Sylvie Maurel analyses the Gothic destabilizing machinery at work in Jean Rhys’s "Wide Sargasso Sea". The first Gothic element the author looks at is the demonic agency that haunts the novel. Colonial history lingers in Rhys’s world and accounts for some of the strange and unexpected phenomena that occur on the island. Actually, the narrative is under the double influence of a past set in an actual history of slavery and a future already written in the story of "Jane Eyre". Rhys’s characters have an uncanny prescience of what lies ahead and a sense that they cannot evade repetition. The motif of witchcraft is another element that links "WSS" to the Gothic. The motif goes beyond a picturesque reference to the West Indian context and functions as a metaphor of the relationship between language and power. Christophine’s witchcraft and Rochester’s Eurocentric discourse are two similar attempts at transforming the world through language. The power of language is also reflected in the way the novel constantly brings together multiple voices and conflicting views which seem to hide a secret rather than reveal a final truth. Rochester can only feel the presence of such a secret and risks delirium as he tries to get a grip on something that constantly eludes him.